Marxism and the Problem of a World State

FOREWORD:

The quotations below, taken from the work of Professor Grigoriĭ Ivanovich Tunkin, are offered in contemplation of the North American regional (Soviet) Union, extrapolated from the progressive “association” of nations in regional blocs first seen in Europe, emulated in South America and in Africa, and emerging now through deceptive “trade deals” in North America.

The ongoing mass immigration toward that end, the end of “Sovietism” or “communism”, also eradicates national borders while “amalgamating” and eliminating racial nations to whom “sovereignty” has heretofore been ascribed in the context of the “nation state”.

North American Soviet UnionBritannica has this to say about Professor Tunkin:

Grigory Ivanovich Tunkin, (born Sept. 30 [Oct. 13, New Style], 1906, Chamovo, Russia—died Aug. 23, 1993, Moscow), Soviet legal scholar and diplomat who played a major role in formulating Soviet foreign policy as a key adviser to Soviet leaders Nikita Khrushchev and Mikhail Gorbachev.

Tunkin graduated from the Moscow Law Institute in 1935 and received a doctorate from Moscow State University in 1938. He began his diplomatic career in 1939, with postings in such countries as Canada and Korea. From 1952 to 1965 he was head of the Treaties and Legal Division of the Soviet foreign ministry and was involved in both treaty drafting and treaty negotiation. He also taught law at Moscow State University during this period. Tunkin exerted considerable influence in the de-Stalinization movement that prevailed until Khrushchev’s political demise in 1964, and he is credited with initiating the theory of peaceful coexistence between the Soviets and the West.

Specializing in maritime and Antarctic law, Tunkin participated in several significant international law conferences. His published works include Foundations of Modern International Law (1956), Problems of the Theory of International Law (1962), Ideological Struggle and International Law (1967), Theory of International Law (1970), and International Law in the International System (1975). Tunkin also served as a delegate to the United Nations General Assembly. From 1964 to 1988 he was the head of the department of international law at Moscow State University.

A succinct but informative biography of Professor Grigoriĭ Ivanovich Tunkin appears under a mint copy of William E. Butler and Vladimir G. Tunkin’s The Tunkin Diary and Lectures, being The Diary and Collected Lectures of G. I. Tunkin at The Hague Academy of International Law published by Eleven International Publishing, 2012 (ISBN 10: 9490947539 / ISBN 13: 9789490947538) offered for sale by Abe Books.

“Grigoriĭ Ivanovich Tunkin was a Soviet jurist and diplomat who became a leading international lawyer in the Soviet Union. His interests were always multi-dimensional. From 1957 to 1966, Tunkin led the Soviet Union’s Legal Department of the Foreign Ministry. In 1961, he was President of the United Nations International Law Commission. Tunkin was professor and Chief of the Chair of International Law at Moscow State University’s Faculty of Law. He also served as President of the Soviet Association of International Law, from its founding in 1957 until his death. Tunkin’s textbooks on international law formed the core of the international law curriculum in the USSR for over 40 years. His works continued to have a lasting influence following the dissolution [sic! — so-called] of the USSR. The present volume brings together a set of materials unique to the Tunkin family and of considerable interest to historians of international law, legal doctrine, and international diplomacy. The book opens with recollections of Tunkin by his youngest son, Vladimir Grigorevich Tunkin, prompted by the discovery that Tunkin kept a diary when he traveled abroad. These are followed by the texts of Tunkin’s lectures at The Hague Academy of International Law, delivered on four occasions between 1958 and 1986.”

We are further informed by translator William E. Butler in his Introduction to his own English edition of Professor Grigoriĭ Ivanovich Tunkin’s Theory of International Law (Harvard University Press, 1974. ISBN 0-674-88001-3), that:

“From 1942 to 1944, Professor Grigoriĭ Ivanovich Tunkin was posted in Canada as counselor of the Soviet Embassy.”

That should suffice to establish the credibility of the quotations below as a reliable mirror of Soviet ideology. These are taken from Tunkin’s own Theory of International Law (supra), in the chapter entitled “The Legal Nature of International Organizations” in the section “Marxism and the Problem of a World State“.

Professor Grigoriĭ Ivanovich Tunkin

Professor Grigoriĭ Ivanovich Tunkin:

“Marxism-Leninism links the possibility of a world association of nations first and foremost with the liquidation of capitalism as the last exploitative socioeconomic formation and with the creation of a socialist society.” — p. 374

“The purpose of socialism,” wrote V. I. Lenin, “is not only to eliminate the splintering of mankind into petty states and any isolation of nations; is not only the rapprochement of nations, but also their amalgamation.”31 But in order to create the conditions for this, more than just the liquidation of private ownership and the creation of a socialist state is needed. Lenin pointed out that national and state differences among peoples and countries will last “for a very, very long time even after realization of the dictatorship of the proletariat on a world-wide scale.” — p. 374

“Even on the domestic plane in a number of instances socialism inherits from capitalism such deep roots of national discord and economic, political, and cultural inequality that a considerable time is required to liquidate them. In international relations, naturally, the matter is far more complex. Each state represents both a political and an economic unit. With the various historical strata of contradictions between states and between nationalities are associated a number of economic, political, cultural, and other problems.” — p. 374

“Within the framework of the world socialist system, however, these differences and contradictions gradually are being overcome on the basis of a new socialist social structure and Marxist-Leninist ideology. Various forms of state unions of socialist states are possible on the path to a classless, stateless communist society.” — p. 374

The creation of a world federation or another form of uniting free states and nations is conceivable, therefore, only on the path of liquidating private ownership, exploitation, class and national contradictions, on the path of constructing socialism and communism.” — p. 374

“A United States of the World (and not of Europe),” wrote V. I. Lenin, “is that state form of union and freedom of nations which we link with socialism, as the complete victory of communism does not lead to the final disappearance of any state, including a democratic state.” — p. 374-75

“The causes of war, whose liquidation is the leitmotif of all plans for a world state, bourgeois scholars misrepresent as state sovereignty, whereas the very existence of sovereign states is a natural consequence of the economic structure of society, and both sovereignty and the state will disappear only when this structure is changed.” — p. 375

“The deep roots of wars are found in the economic system and in the specific class structure of society which it determines. Moreover, bourgeois concepts of a world stale originate, and by their class nature can not but originate, from the possibility of creating a world state and liquidating wars without affecting the economic system of capitalism.” — p. 375

AFTERWORD:

The Canadian Yearbook of International Law, Volume 41; Volume 2003 edited by D.M. McRae offers a memorable statement ofn Tunkin’s legal value as an expositor of Soviet ideology in the framework of international law.

/ 619

Tunkin’s standing among Soviet international jurists of his vin­tage alone suffices to impart more than passing interest to this edi­tion. From the mid-1950s until he died in 1993, he bestrode Russian

/ 620

international legal scholarship as no jurist since F.F. Martens (1845-1909) had done.3 He outstripped contemporary Soviet jurists by combining distinguished academic appointments at home and abroad with a prominent role in formulating Soviet foreign policy in the post-Stalin era. His scholarly works underwent translation into various languages, including English, French, Spanish, Ger­man, Arabic, Chinese, Japanese, and Vietnamese. More than any other contemporary Soviet international jurist, he could expound authoritatively a theory of international law mirroring Marxist-Leninist ideology and Soviet geopolitical relations from the early 1950s onwards. Most likely, his exposition in the present edition will remain that era’s foremost exposition of Soviet thinking on international law — if not the foremost exposition of Soviet inter­national legal thought generally.

A central pillar of Tunkin’s theory of international law was his conviction that capitalist and socialist countries could coexist under norms of general international law. From 1956, he advanced a theory of “peaceful coexistence,” in which general international legal norms arose through agreement between states.4 As Butler has correctly remarked, this theory underpinned cooperation between capitalist and socialist countries at least until the Soviet Union col­lapsed in 1991.5

More immediately, Tunkin’s theory of “peaceful coexistence” informed his exposition of the international legal issues treated in the present edition.

Advertisements

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s